The Clementinum is a former Jesuit college and one of the largest building complexes in the Old Town. It was founded on the site of a former Dominican monastery by Jesuits summoned to Prague in 1556 at the instigation of the Emperor Ferdinand I. The main front of the college faces on to Krizovnicke‚ Square and contains the Church of St. Salvatore and the oldest wing. After its foundation in 1578- 1581 the church's first stage was the sanctuary, followed in 1600-1601 by the nave and side aisles, which were completed by Carlo Lurago in 1638-1640. In 1648-1649 the dome was raised, to the design of Francesco Caratti, and the towers in 1714 by Frantisek Maxmilian Kanka, who was very active in other parts of the Clementinum. The portico was erected in 1651 - 1653 and adorned in 1659 with sculptures by Jiri Bendl, whose workshop also carried out the stucco decoration of the church interior. The sculptures above the confessionals are also Bendl's work. The altar paintings are by Jan Jiri Heintsch, Jan Jiri Hering and other early baroque artists. At the eastern end of the sanctuary there is a small central structure, the Italian Chapel, erected between 1590 and 1600 probably by the Italian architect Domenico Bossi for the spiritual needs of the large Italian community resident in Prague. The third sacred edifice of the complex is the Church of St. Clement built in 1711-1715. The interior has high baroque sculptural de‚cor by Mayas Bernard Braun and his school, fine frescos by Jan Hiebl and altar paintings by Petr Brandl, Ignac Raab and others. Dominating the whole college is the astronomical tower with its crowning figure of Atlas, erected by F. M. Kanka (1721-1723). Among the outstanding rooms of the interior are the former summer refectory with pictures by Krystof Taus on the main walls (now the central reading room), and the Mirror Chapel with murals by J. Hiebl and framed pictures by Vaclav Vavrinec Reiner. Baroque halls on the upper floor are also worthy of note, e.g. the Library Hall, the Mozart Hall, the Mathematics and Manuscript Rooms, all decorated with murals and stucco. The college halls and their immediate surroundings have witnessed many historical events, ranging from the defence mounted by the students under the leadership of the Jesuit Jiri Plachy against the Swedes in 1648 to the revolutionary turbulence of 1848, when for a short while, the students held captive their rector, Count Lev Thun. After the Jesuit order was suppressed in 1773 the Clementinum was given over to an archiepiscopal seminary and in 1800 part of the complex was made available to the Academy of Drawing. In 1928 - 1932 the building was adapted by the architect Ladislav Machon for the use of the National and University Library. It contains many priceless manuscripts and incunabulae.